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傳統中國都市化的質性研究---以晚明南京為中心

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 計畫摘要計畫內容參考書目ABSTRACT

  歷史學者多同意明清社會發展的一大特色為其高度的城市化與蓬勃發展的都市文化。所謂的「都市化」,泛指經濟意義上的商業化與非農人口集中,都市化在政治、社會、文化層面所帶來的深遠的影響,已經多有研究。 然而,在這些討論中,「城市」通常被視為一同質性、不證自明的範疇,也就是說,明清的城市與宋元的城市之間,唯有規模上的差異,而無根本質性的區別。事實上,自宋以來,各朝立國皆有不同的城市政策,在財政結構上賦予城市不同的位置與角色。換言之,如果我們不將「城市」所處的政治、文化脈絡納入研究視野,對於中國「都市化」問題的探討將被侷限在量化的層面,而忽略了在不同的帝國架構中,「城市」在性質上的轉換與其「都市化」現象本身所蘊涵豐富的社會、文化意涵。基於這樣的想法,本計劃將「城市」與「城市化」置於帝國結構中來觀察:意即,如果我們開始考慮各朝相異的都市定位與政策,那麼宋、元、明清各代所經歷的「都市化」,實際上亦各有不同的性質與影響。在此理解之下,本計劃的核心問題是:對以小農社會為立國理想的明帝國而言,其中晚期所經歷的高度城市化與商業化,對原本的帝國結構有何衝擊與影響?這些變化又是如何轉而重新界定「城市」的性質與角色?具體而言,我們將以明代南京為中心,旁及當時主要的城市如北京、蘇州,探討「都市化」下「城市」意義在政治、社會、文化層面上的轉變。

 計畫摘要計畫內容參考書目ABSTRACT

(一)研究目標與重點:

  都市化研究的量化趨勢,原因之一在於其問題取向上著重於「比較」,希望可以將中國城市在世界城市的系譜上找到恰當的位置。量化的城市化研究取徑提供了一個清楚而確實的比較基礎,包括人口密度的分配,資源的交換,以及城市-鄉村的空間結構。以William Skinner與Rozman的研究為例,前者則集中在中國,觀察其長期的城市化趨勢(macro cycles);後者則著重中、日同時期的跨地域比較。Rozman 的跨地域比較研究,利用中、日、英、俄、法的個案,具體分析、比較各文化間城市化空間模式的不同,從而解釋其現代化進程中的不同境遇與成果。他認為,城市體系的空間分布,是資源轉移與運用的效率指標,中國的城市化的「寬底金字塔」特徵------缺乏中間層次的城市連結大都會與農村市集------造成其在資源動員上的低落效率,與現代化過程的困難。

  Skinner 的區域分析則將中國分為八個空間區塊,主張其各有內在的城市體系與市場結構,此理論奠定了研究傳統中國都市化的基石。Skinner的城市體系模型以人口為依據,在這樣的模型下,他得到與Rozman截然不同的結論:如果我們將中國的經濟數據作空間區域上的殊分處理,那麼所看到的城市化,其實是在空間上更平均的發展,而非Rozman主張的兩極殊化。就歷史面相而言,Skinner指出,十、十一世紀最重要的城市革命,在明清時期呈現不同的發展模式:就規模而言,最高級的都會規模逐漸降低,但整體的區域都市化程度提高。

  雖然Rozman與Skinner在城市空間模式的理解上得到相反的結論,但問題的關鍵其實在兩者對數據的不同評量與詮釋,基本上,兩者對「城市化」現象的預設其實是一致的------也正因此方有跨時間、地域的比較基礎。值得注意的是,在這裡「都市化」的現象主要被界定在「量」的層面上,集中於其所實現的市場機能;在此「量」的前題之下,再進一步探索城市化對政治、社會、文化各方面「質」的影響。總體而言,「量」的城市化研究的確大大開展了我們對中國城市的理解,釐清跨朝代的經濟循環(macro cycle)在歷史發展過程的重要性及影響力。同時也提供中國城市在世界城市史定位的基石。承此脈絡,近來的明清都市文化研究基本上亦在此前提下推展,視「都市化」與「商業化」為一體的兩面,密不可分,並以此為基礎,從而探討市民文學與都市文化等種種文化上的發展。然而,這樣「由量而質」的思考方向並未反及「城市」本身,進一步探索這些因城市化所促生的政治、社會、文化變遷如何重塑「城市」------作為一政治範疇、社會空間,與文化概念------不同層次上所蘊含的意義。忽略了「城市」性質的變遷,其結果是,中國歷史上的數波城市化,除了在「量」上的增減之外,無法明確區辨他們在「質」上的不同。我們想問的正是,在歷朝不同的社會結構、文化概念與政治體系下,各代的城市化真的可以被預設為齊一的同質現象嗎?或者,換一個角度來看,除了「量」性的發展之外,當我們轉移焦點到「質性」的城市化研究,是否可以發掘中國城市史的另一個面相?

  城市化的「質性」研究,簡言之,是著重城市的政治文化基礎,追索「城市性質」的歷史發展。也就是說,「城市」不只是作為非農人口集中與商業交換的地點,另一方面,亦為帝國結構所界定的政治範疇,社會力匯聚的空間,以及文化概念的論述對象。具體而言,由「城市稅法」的角度,我們可以發現,宋、元、明、清各代皆對城市有相當不同的界定與規範,其中以明帝國的城市界定最為曖昧不清,缺乏明確的制度與規範。這樣的曖昧性,加上明代商業蓬勃發展,正值中央控制力的衰退,我們看到,「社會」開始自發地重新界定、質疑、與想像「城市」的意義及其所扮演的角色。本計劃即由這個角度出發,以明代南京為中心,探索明帝國的後期城市化是如何影響「城市」的性質與界定。將分由政治、社會、文化三個方向詳細考察:

  一、城市作為政治範疇:明帝國建立的原始結構中,是以小農社會為建設理想,「城市」被賦予被動的邊緣角色,在財政上沒有明確的界定與規範。這樣的曖昧性所造成的問題,在一條鞭的改革過程中被凸顯出來。一條鞭的主要精神,在將人身的役,轉移為貨幣形式的稅;也就是說,將原來「賦出於田,役出於身」的賦役雙軌制,轉為以賦稅為主。在這樣的改變下,對沒有田產的城市居民,稅課的界定成為都市行政的一大難題。我們將以南京為例,觀察在一條鞭法的改革浪潮下,「城市」與國家間的關係是如何被重新界定。

  二、城市作為社會空間:城市化的結果,是強化了在政治首都外另一系列的經濟市鎮。此二系統大致上平行,但非完全重疊。當國家將商業市鎮轉為政治城市(縣)時,這兩種城市系統開始有直接的互動。由商業的「鎮」到政治的「縣」,地方社會是如何理解、反應這個變化?也就是說,我們將由地方社會的角度觀察,政治與經濟都市體系的交會與轉換,是如何進行?

  三、城市作為文化概念:傳統對「空間」與「人文」的理解,「風俗論」是主要的一脈。就傳統農業社會的角度來看,「土地」的特質決定地方文化的特性;那麼城市的風俗,是被什麼因素決定、形塑?在這一部分,將以明代南京文化名人顧起元的「風俗論」,討論對「城市」人文景觀的新的理解。

(二)對於學術理論或應用方面預期之貢獻。

  傳統中國朝代相傳之間常常經由「天命」與「正統」的傳延論述以強調政權的合法性,因此在意識型態上,帝國之間的結構性差異往往隱而不現。再加上傳統中國基本上為農業帝國,學者在討論上亦往往集中在農村結構與土地制度的變化。城市的歷史變遷與帝國的發展鮮少被相提並論。事實上,城市作為農業聚落的連結與樞紐,其實正提供我們一個特殊的視角,觀察農業帝國的結構變化。本計劃以明代南京為中心,觀察城市化如何重塑「城市」在變遷的帝國結構下所扮演的角色,正是希望可以為此取徑提供一個新的出發點。

 計畫摘要計畫內容參考書目ABSTRACT

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 計畫摘要計畫內容參考書目ABSTRACT

  This project explores the changing nature of cities in sixteenth and seventeenth-century China through a case analysis of Nanjing in three dimensions: the city as a political category, as a social identity, and as a cultural construct. Such exploration is prompted by one central puzzle: how, in the only dynasty that defined cities administratively as an extension of the countryside despite significant commercialization and urbanization, did the people of Nanjing experience, perceive, and (re)build their own city? I will approach this question by studying three movements at the turn of seventeenth century, including a grass-roots drive for urban corvée reform that redefined the place of cities in the imperial political system, a popular protest against building city walls in a Nanjing metropolitan county that debated the essential distinction between cities and towns, and a wave of publications of written and visual representations of Nanjing by a close-knit group of Nanjing literati. These movements, led by Nanjing elites, county gentry, and urban residents, reveal the ways in which these social groups took part in the re-making of Nanjing under the sway of the sixteenth and seventeenth-century urbanization.

  This project proposes a qualitative approach toward late Ming urbanization, a historical phenomenon that has been largely exhibited through quantitative models mapping the increasing concentration of commercial activities and population. Although this line of inquiry has greatly improved our knowledge of the spatial distribution of city residents and its economic significance (especially when compared with other areas within or without China) brought by late imperial urbanization, its focus on economic and census data has left many critical issues unanswered, such as: How did the several waves of urbanization in the past millennium reshape the perceptions of Chinese cities politically, socially, and culturally? How was the seemingly homogeneous process of urbanization made different by the varied imperial structures and urban policies between the Song and Qing dynasties?

  By demonstrating how the meaning of “city” was rediscovered, disputed, and reconceived at the turn of seventeenth-century China, this project shows that the qualitative development of urbanization is very much contingent on the imperial structure in which it took place. Only from this perspective will we be able to place cities and urbanization process in its imperial context and thus appreciate their developments and changes in nature between the Song and Qing dynasties. Conversely, by exploring the qualitative aspects of the late Ming urbanization, this project will also shed new lights on the structural changes of the late Ming empire in which cities played a pivotal role. It will also be able to lay empirical grounds for future comparative studies of Chinese cities in the context of Chinese empires or global urban development.