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明清江南城市中的豪門第宅

巫 仁 恕

 計畫摘要ABSTRACT

  明中葉以後營建華麗第宅的風氣特別興盛,這種現象在江南地區最為明顯,而且這類高級的第宅有逐漸向城市,如蘇州、松江、杭州與南京等地集中的現象;在這波風氣中江南的縉紳士大夫是帶動者。不僅如此,甚至中產之家也群起仿效。然而因為園林建築是學界早已注目的焦點,所以過去的研究成果幾乎青一色地偏向園林的研究,而第宅的研究徒有大量的史料卻乏人問津。既有的一些關於明清第宅的研究成果,也幾乎沒有專門探討當時名人第宅最多、營建風氣最盛的江南地區。史料豐富使得研究此一課題具有充份的條件,尤其是明清江南保存了大量的地方志,而且品質很高、內容詳盡。

  本計畫擬由新的研究方法與新的角度,包括城市史、社會史、文化史與生活史等多元視角,以明清江南四大城市──南京、蘇州、松江與杭州為例作分析。核心議題是:明代中期以降的江南城市,在商品化與都市化日漸加劇的流動社會中,第宅本身(包括數量、分佈、形式、內部空間等)與人們的第宅觀念,出現什麼樣的變化?而這些變化又反映了什麼樣的社會變遷?本計畫將陸續從事明清江南城市名人第宅的量化分析、探討第宅營建風氣、名人第宅的文化象徵,以及第宅的內部空間與家庭倫理等課題。  

 

 計畫摘要ABSTRACT

  Building magnificent mansions were all the fashion since the middle period of Ming dynasty, most obvious in the delta of Yangtze River district. There was also a current of these kinds of advanced mansions concentrating in the city such as the Suzhou, Songjiang, Hangzhou, Nanjing and other places gradually. The gentry and official of the government were the persons who pushed this wave of atmosphere forward. Moreover, even the middle classes also imitated and followed the example. However the educational circles have been already the purpose focus of the garden building in Late Imperial China, so the researches in the past nearly lean to the research of the garden. Even there are a large number of historical resources for the research of the mansion, but few people shows any interest in. Some research results of the mansion of Ming and Qing Dynasties have not almost specially probed into the delta of Yangtze River district. The historical resources enriches making and studies this subject. Especially a large number of local gazetteers of the delta of Yangtze River district in the Ming and Qing Dynasties were kept, and the quality was very high, the content was exhaustive.

  This plan is drafted by the new research approach, including such plural visions as urban history, social history, culture history and life history, etc., with four major cities in Ming and Qing Dynasties - - Nanjing, Suzhou, Songjiang and Hangzhou for analysis. The key topic is: what kind of change occurred in the mansion (including quantity, distributed, forms, inside space etc.) and the mansion ideas of the people in the commercialization and urbanization flow that aggravate day by day of the society? And what kind of the social transformation these changes reflected? This plan will be engaged in the quantitative analysis of the mansion, discussing the fashion of mansion building, inquiry into the cultural symbol of the mansion, and such subjects as inside space of the mansion and family's ethics, etc.