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南京:回憶中的城市16-19世紀

李 孝 悌

 計畫摘要ABSTRACT

   明太祖決定建都南京,大規模的修築城牆,進行城市建設,不但讓南京一躍而成為當時世界上最雄偉的城市,也為明清南京城市文化的發展,奠定重要的基礎。重新作為帝國都城的歷史雖然只持續了幾十年,卻讓六朝金陵的歷史記憶和文化想像,有了另一個具體的時空作為依歸而被不斷的召喚、傳述。即使當南京失去了政治中心的地位,而從十六世紀開始,以一個繁庶的江南物質文化的代表性城市而為人所稱述時,六朝金陵的意象和千百年來所累積的歷史、文化傳承,仍然在這個日趨世俗化的城市經驗中扮演了重要的地位。歷史記憶、文化傳承和現實政治、商業發展緊密交織,讓明代南京發展出獨具風貌的城市性格。

  明亡之後,回憶更成為南京記述中最突出的要素,在六朝金陵之外,對明末南京聲色風華的追憶,更加重了這個城市給人的滄桑之感,南京幾乎成了一個完全存在於記憶中的城市。即使到了十九世紀,這種充滿強烈歷史回憶性質的特質,仍然可以在《金陵瑣志》這一類地方鄉里誌的記載中顯現出來。或者,也正因為南京在政治、商業上的地位日漸式微,使得歷史回憶和文化傳述的重要性更加突顯。

  這個研究的目的,即打算從身份、地位、背景相異的士大夫/文人的不同性質的記述文字中,從宗教、戲世、園林、逸樂、日常生活等角度切入,重建這種曾經盛極一時的傳統城市的特殊風貌。

 
 計畫摘要ABSTRACT

  When Ming Taizu decided to establish Nanjing as the capital of the empire, he substantially built the city walls and undertook construction throughout the city. It was thus that Nanjing advanced in leaps and bounds, becoming one of the world’s most magnificent cities of the age; it also established the foundation vital for the cultural development of city during the Qing and Ming Dynasties. Though the history of the city’s reinstatement as the capital of the empire only lasted a few decades, nonetheless this period became a rich source from which to derive cultural vision and historical narrative. Even though Nanjing lost its position as a political center, and from the 16th century onwards, it was famed to be representative of the prosperity of Southern Chinese material cultures, the city’s image in conjunction with the history and culture it had accumulated over tens of thousands of years still played an important role, lending to a greater degree of cosmopolitanism with each passing day. It was in the Nanjing of the Ming Dynasty that historical memory, inherited culture, political reality, and commercial development inextricably intertwined, creating the city’s unique flavor.

  After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, its legacy became the most prominent factor within Nanjing’s narrative. Apart from the Nanjing of the Six Dynasties, the recounts of the splendor and elegance of Nanjing at the end of the Ming Dynasty gravely confirm that time with it brought great change; Nanjing nearly became a city that existed only in memory.  Even up to the 19th century, historical accounts brimming with intensity appear in the Miscellaneous Records of Nanjing and other such similar rural records. Alternatively, just as Nanjing’s political and commercial status declined day by day, the importance of its historical legacy and inherited culture became even more conspicuous.

  The goal of this research is to analyze the nature of the accounts of various gentry/literati, who are of diverse statuses and backgrounds, in terms of religion, theatre, parks, leisure, daily life etc., with a view to reconstructing the distinctive image of this once magnificent traditional city.